The language gets the increasing importance as the supervising beginning in scientific studying of culture. Somewhat the system of cultural stereotypes of any civilization is ordered by means of the language expressing the given civilization [Sepir, 1993 : 259-265].
We can judge only through culture about the fact who we are in this world, what are the borders and scales of our existence in it and what means in general to be the person. From the philosophical point of view, culture – is not simply a sum of things or ideas which should be allocated and described empirically only, it is all subject validity created by mankind personifying our own forces and the relations. Any fragment of the valid world – in the measure in what it is capable to serve us as reflection, a mirror of our own historically generated and socially developed forces, our public “I”, – becomes the integral element of culture. The culture, hence, is the whole world in which we find out, we find themselves which comprises conditions and necessary preconditions our originally human, i.e. always and in all public, existence [Mezhuev, 1987: 329].
In Humboldt’s theoretical concept the two phenomena language and culture are inseparably linked and interdependent. «Language, – Humboldt confirms, – there is a spirit of the people». Language is exposed to influence of the circumstances surrounding the person in the world and influencing even on the acts of its freedom. Each language incorporates something from a concrete originality of the nation and in turn operates on it in the same direction. National character is supported, consolidated, even is to a certain extent created by a generality of a place and dwelling of employment, but in its being is based upon the similarity of natural way usually explained by a generality of an origin [Humboldt, 2002: 166]. «While the spirit of the people with its live originality continues both to operate itself, and to influence language, this last is improved and enriched that in turn inspiring influences spirit» [Humboldt, 2002; 164].
The culture is a principle of the certain vital relation, and this principle can be realized in all fields of activity of the person from household to the intellectual.
The paremiological layer of language, in our opinion, reflects excellently the spirit, the culture of the people. The proverbial fund is made by the sayings different in time of occurrence, in an origin, in sources and the social environment. But the basis of their occurrence is uniform. This is the social labour experience, observation, sharp mind of Russian people, and also art properties and possibilities of Russian language.
Paroemias are created as cultural signs at a certain stage of development of a society and language. The great bulk, fixed fund of Russian proverbs is the radical national creativity closely connected with all way of life of the people. Observing the figurative basis of Russian proverbs, organic communication with traditional symbolics of people and their national culture as a whole is felt. In close unity ethical, moral, religious, magic, art and logic aspects of national consciousness are presented. So, proverbs and sayings of Russian people create an image of the Christian God possessing a number of qualities, and the concept is sated by set of senses. Religious representations are realized in Russian paroemia’s fund very convincingly, for example, paroemias «Ни отец для детей, как Бог до людей», «Богу молиться – вперед пригодится», «На Бога молишься – не обложишься» and some other allow to assert the importance of God in cultural consciousness of Russian that it is put above other values.
Using paroemias the native speaker represents the general standard (stereotypic) opinion of the people, concerning to a certain social situation.
There are a lot of valuable representations that are transferred by culture constants in paroemias. Such cultural constants as “Will”, “Freedom”, “Melancholy”, “Perhaps” are recognized as Russian specific proverbs [Philosophical sciences, 2011].
In hierarchy of systems of Russian values one of leading places is occupied with the work (labour) interfaced to patience: «Терпенье и труд – все перетрут». At the same time, work is a heavy employment which is connected with zeal, pressure, physical torture: «Работай до поту, так поешь в охоту».
Thus, proverbs, being a part of culture of the given people, remain actual, at any time proverbs and sayings will be characteristic feature of the concrete people. Supervision over the figurative bases of Russian national proverbs distinctly open their organic communication with traditional symbolics and national culture as a whole. The paremiological fund represents the unity of ethical, moral, religious, magic, art and logic aspects of national consciousness, i.e. all those that makes Russian mentality.
- Sepir E. The selected works on linguistics and cultural science / E.Sepir//[the lane with English under the editorship of, with preface A.E.Kibrika]. – М: Progress: Univers, 1993. – 654 p.
- Mezhuev V.M. Culture as a philosophy problem / V.M.Mezhuev // Culture, the person and a world picture [red. A.I.Arnold, V.A.Kruglikov]. – М: Science, 1987. – 347p.
- Humboldt V. The selected works on linguistics / V. Humboldt [red. G.V.Ramishvili; A.V.Gulygi and V.A.Zvegintseva]. – М: Open Society of YOKES “Progress”, 2002. – 400 p.
- Philosophical sciences. – 2011. – P-s. 108-121.