УДК 371

РЕТРОСПЕКТИВНЫЙ ВЗГЛЯД НА ИСТОКИ ОБУЧЕНИЯ СОВРЕМЕННОМУ ИСКУССТВУ СРЕДИ СЕРБОВ

Элэзович Звездана Милутин
Институт сербской культуры, г. Лепосавич, Сербия
исследователь - научный сотрудник

Аннотация
В данной работе обсуждается начало обучения современному искусству среди сербов, и его влияния на сербскую культуру. В первой половине девятнадцатого века сербское государство обеспечило стипендии для школьного образования художников за рубежом, а в конце столетия было основано первое учебное заведение по обучению искусству.

Ключевые слова: искусство, культура, образование, педагогика искусства, Сербия, скульпторы, художники, школа искусств


A RETROSPECTIVE VIEW ON THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN ART EDUCATION AMONG THE SERBS

Elezovic Zvezdana Milutin
The Institute of serbian Culture Leposavic, Serbia
Research Associate

Abstract
This paper discusses the beginnings of modern art education among Serbs and its impact on Serbian culture. In the first half of the nineteenth century, the Serbian state provided scholarships for schooling artists abroad, and at the end of the century, the first educational institutions for art were established.

Keywords: art, art school, culture, education, painters, pedagogy of art, sculptors, Serbia


Рубрика: Педагогика

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Элэзович З.М. A retrospective view on the beginnings of modern art education among the Serbs // Психология, социология и педагогика. 2014. № 12 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://psychology.snauka.ru/2014/12/4194 (дата обращения: 01.10.2017).

National institutions had an important role in the development of Serbian national art, especially the state and all its segments. It was able to, through various activities, encourage the development of national culture. It controlled the activities that took place in it, and also financed the development of national culture. It was able to, by means of legal provisions and operation of government ministries, clearly determine the development of national art.

Activities of the Serbian state in the development of national culture followed the patriotic state practice in the new century. The development of state patronage of national art in Serbia also followed the flow of internal events. The significance of the ruler was in many periods of the nineteenth century crucial for all political events, and the work of rulers also had state symbols, together with the ruler’s propaganda. This was particularly prominent during the first reign of Prince Milos. He was one of the biggest patrons of and contributors to Serbian culture. In his time, the Treasury financed the construction and decoration of many church buildings [1, p. 108-109].

The first idea regarding art schools occurred to Dimitrije Jovanovic in 1845 on the establishment of “picturesque colleges.” Then there was Private Music School of Milan Milovuk, which worked at the Belgrade Singing Society, starting from 1853, and Acting School of Aleksa Bacvanski at the National Theatre in Belgrade, which began working in 1869. Higher education institutions were established and the way was paved for the development of art pedagogy. Continued work was achieved only by Serbian Drawing and Painting School, founded in 1895 (in 1905, it changed its name to famous Arts and Crafts School). After the First World War, Art School and State Theater School with acting and ballet sections were founded. The state had a special role in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, at a time when art became one of the accepted means in foreign-political emphasis on the Serbian state. Then the state bore the costs of preparation and organization of participation of Serbia in the Yugoslav and world exhibitions, and gave strong support to the development of the Yugoslav art concept through funding exhibitions, participation of Serbian artists, and purchasing works of art [7, p. 96-101].

One of the forms of support for the national art, as well as a segment of the construction of the state elite [8], was education of artists and financial support for their works. State cadets who studied art had been emerging continuously from the time of Prince Milos. A small number of academic Serbian artists and architects did not receive help from the Serbian state in the nineteenth century. According to the practice that started at the time of Prince Milos, the Serbian state provided scholarships for many artists, such as Anastas Jovanovic from 1838 to 1841, Djordje Milovanovic 1867-1872, Djordje Krstic 1873-1881, Nadezda Petrovic, Djordje Jovanovic, Rista Vukanovic, Petar Ubavkic, Branko Popovic, Milan Milovanovic, Lazar Krdzalic, Petar Ranosovic and Leon Koen [9, p. 377].

The relationship between the state and art became a subject of debate in the late nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Jovan Skerlic writes about it in the article “Art and Democracy,” referring to the book (Charles-Maurice Couyba) L’Art et la Democratic. He points out that there are three aspects of the relationship between art and the state. The first is the individualistic approach of the artist who refuses any help from the state and advocates “free art in a free country.” The second relationship is communist, which stands for “collective art in a sovereign state” and “the state, in whose hands all social property was, would have a monopoly of art production, teaching and protection.” He believes that then art would receive an official character and lose its own freedom, which is unthinkable. The third approach, which Skerlic supports, is “free art in a protective state.” It includes free development of art, but also the state’s help [6]. In the work of Matica Srpska, many aspects were associated with visual culture [11, p. 9-64]. In addition to collecting and ordering works of art, it participated in training Serbian cadets in many scientific and art fields. Its cadets were Uros Predic, from 1877-78 to 1885, Paja Jovanovic, Stevan Aleksic, Milan Borojevic, Slavoljub Vorkapic, Milan Milutinovic, Nikola Milojevic, Aleksandar Sekulic, Vojislav Trifunovic and Josif Falta [3, p. 619-668].

During the nineteenth century, several influential and prominent art academies worked in Europe. The Serbs did not have an appropriate educational art institution, which caused the departure of students to European centers. For Serbian students of painting, the most important educational centers during the nineteenth century were Vienna, Munich, and Paris. These centers had a dominant role in certain European stages. Education in educational art centers significantly influenced Serbian art and cultural life. The students adopted different visual concepts that were dependent on general academic courses and the reputation of the lecturers, and thus, completely followed modern European developments. However, in the first half of the nineteenth century, the thought of organizing an appropriate educational and art institution in Serbia appeared. One of the first initiatives was taken by Dimitrije Avramovic in 1845. In his proposal for the establishment of the picturesque colleges, he clearly highlighted its national significance and importance of art in the construction of national identity [5, p.32].

At the beginning of the second half of the nineteenth century, the first schools of art were established in Belgrade. It was a private school of Steva Todorovic, 1857-1860, in which some of the most important Serbian artists of the second half of the nineteenth century were educated, such as Nikola Markovic, a member of the Serbian Learned Society [4, p. 18-26]. During 1895, Cyril Kutlik founded Serbian Drawing and Painting School in Belgrade [10, p. 9-17].

It is important to emphasize that Serbian art was highly regarded at well-known art events in Europe in the early twentieth century. Higher education in art begins by establishing the first higher schools in 1937, when Academy of Arts was formed (where the disciplines of Fine Arts were studied), members of expert committees were appointed, the curriculum was being made, teaching staff was appointed, and they were preparing for the reception of the first generation of students. The establishment of these higher schools of art crowned the efforts of many zealous workers who were working on the setting of art education in Serbia.

The development of art education among the Serbs was a lengthy process that lasted throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth century. The Serbian people and state fought for independence and development of state institutions, at the same time working on strengthening their national culture. An important segment of culture was art, which became appreciated in the wider European area at the beginning of the twentieth century.


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