УДК 159.96

ПРОФЕССИОНАЛЬНЫЙ СТРЕСС: СПЕЦИФИКА ВОЗНИКНОВЕНИЯ И ПСИХОЛОГО – ЭКОНОМИЧЕСКИЕ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯ

Найденова Светлана Валентиновна
Институт сферы обслуживания и предпринимательства (филиал) ДГТУ в г. Шахты

Аннотация
Статья посвящена психологическим особенностям профессионального стресса, причинам его возникновения, структуре и разновидностям его протекания, а также последствиям воздействия стресс - факторов на человека. Представлена специфика проявления профессионального стресса в совокупности воздействия объективных и субъективных факторов. Дается определение и характеристика синдрома профессионального выгорания и его последствий для личности.

Ключевые слова: стресс


PROFESSIONAL STRESS: SPECIFICS OF EMERGENCE AND ITS PSYCHOLOGIST — ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

Naidenova Svetlana Valentinovna
Institute of Entrepreneurship and Service, branch of DSTU in Shahty

Abstract
The article is devoted to the psychological characteristics of of professional stress, causes of its origin, structure and variety of its course and consequences of the impact of stress - factors on the person. Presented specifics manifestations professional stress in the aggregate impact of objective and subjective factors. The definition and characteristics of burnout and its consequences for the individual.

Keywords: deformation of the individual, professional burnout, professional stress, stress – factors


Рубрика: Психология

Библиографическая ссылка на статью:
Найденова С.В. Professional stress: specifics of emergence and its psychologist — economic consequences // Психология, социология и педагогика. 2016. № 5 [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://psychology.snauka.ru/2016/05/6659 (дата обращения: 28.09.2017).

In the modern world the increasing practical and scientific relevance is acquired by a problem of studying of the stress connected with professional activity of the person. The World Health Organization calls a professional stress “an illness of the 21st century” as this type of a stress has accepted the sizes of “global epidemic” and meets practically in all professions of the world that is connected with essential change of conditions and contents of work, the continuous growth of social, ecological, economic, personal tension of our life [1, page 165].

Now the problem of a professional stress is developed in works as foreign (Sh. Burn, K. Mackay, K.L. Cooper, S. Kartrayt, etc.), and Russian (V. V. Boyko, V.A. Bodrov, V. R. Mikhaylova, A.B. Leonova, etc.) scientists. The concept “stress” was entered by the Canadian biologist Hans Selye in 1936 as the explanation of “nonspecific reaction of an organism in response to any adverse effect” [tsit. on: 1, page 167]. Later it began to be applied to the description of conditions of the person in extreme conditions at the physiological, psychological and behavioural levels. Selye in the doctrine about a stress has allocated three consecutive stages of development of the general adaptation syndrome depending on duration of influence of stressor: alarm stage, stage of resistance and stage of exhaustion. The first two stages have productive character as are connected with processes of extreme mobilization of the vital forces of an organism necessary for change of behavior in new conditions. The third stage, exhaustions – result of long influence of a stressor when it isn’t enough resources of the individual for elimination of a source of a stress. At this stage adaptive mechanisms of an organism are broken, adaptation resources are exhausted owing to what there can be functional and morphological changes in an organism. On the basis of influence on a human body it is possible to allocate two forms of a stress: productive — leading to increase of motivation of the person and growth of development, and destructive — result of which overfatigue and a distress.

Now the special attention is paid to studying of a destructive influence of stressful states on efficiency of activity and psychosomatic health of the individual. Itresults from the fact that professional stresses destabilize work of the organization, provoke loss of qualified personnel, reduce working capacity and efficiency of work, break organizational culture. The stress negatively affects both the organization in general, and a mental condition of the individual. In literature on the considered problem it is shown that a number of working stressor, such as role uncertainty, the conflicts, insufficient control, a working overload, is usually closely connected with the mental tension, psychosomatic frustration and adverse behavioural effects, such as desocialization and professional deformation of the personality. Therefore, the problem of studying of the factors exerting negative impact on work of the personality in the organization and development of the programs directed to decrease in influence a stress — factors and fight against stressful states is particularly acute now.

Psychological feature of a stress is his dependence as from external extreme impacts on the individual, and from personal sense of the purpose of his activity. As a result of it, the stress reason at the person can become both work, and a concrete professional situation. The objective reasons of a stress are often covered in the personal features of the person which are shown in the course of work: in own attitude, vital installations and stereotypes, requirements and motives. Proceeding from it, the reasons of developing of a professional stress can be divided into two types — main and direct. Various events, such as lack of mutual understanding with the management, a lack of time on performance of a task, the increased level of complexity of a task, unsatisfactory conditions of work can be immediate causes of developing of a professional stress. The consequence of these situations, as a rule, is psychological intensity of the person and stressful states. The main reasons of developing of a stress are connected with specific features of the personality — psychological, physiological, professional. Global factors, such as unemployment rate, discrepancy of the worker to certain requirements of time, an economic crisis, and personal problems can exert impact on emergence of stressful states also.

N. V. Samoukina allocates “three kinds of a professional stress: information, communicative, emotional”. [2, page 180]. At information stress the person has temporary overloads in the course of which he doesn’t cope with tasks and can’t make the decision, especially if it is followed by high degree of responsibility. The communicative stress is connected with problems in communication, inability to be protected from aggression, to formulate refusal, inability to be protected from a manipulation. The emotional stress leads to destruction of the identity of the person, its values, installations and motives, as a result of unjustified expectations, treachery of relatives or colleagues, offense, etc.

Long influence of stressful states in the course of professional activity on the person, following the results of supervision, can be led to emotional and somatic changes — different types of professional and personal deformations from which “professional burning out” can result. The term “burning out” was introduced by H. Fredenberg in 1974 for the first time as a state “own uselessness, uselessness of the personality” [3, page 275]. Professional burning out is result of emotional burning out of the personality. Symptoms of emotional burning out are – easing of emotions, decrease in level of feelings and experiences, indifference to people, loss has washed away lives, self-confidence, etc. The professions like “people — people” are most subject to “emotional burning out”. Professions of this type mean long contact with people which from the emotional point of view is difficult for supporting. Burning out is the syndrome developing against long influence of a professional stress and as the result conducting to a starvation of all resources of laziness in the course of work. Professional burning out arises in the course of accumulation of negative emotions without a possibility of their release.

The model of a syndrome of professional burning out can be presented as the three-dimensional construct consisting of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduction of personal achievements [1, page 173]. It is observed or a tendency to negative estimation of in the professional plan, or in reduction of own advantage, restriction of the opportunities, removals from itself of responsibility and attempt to shift to others. It is shown in decrease in working capacity, constant feeling of fatigue, decrease in a power tone, headaches, insomnia, etc. Psychological states of workers are characterized by negative installations in relation to themselves and people around, emergence of flashes of a razzhrazheniye and anger, apathy and indifference. Depersonalization leads to the cynical and inhumane relation to work and to surrounding people. V.V. Quickly defines emotional burning out as “the mechanism of psychological protection in the form of a complete or partial elimination of emotions in response to the injuring influences” [4, page 83].

Thus, presence of a stress and a stress – factors we can observe in work practically each person. The consequences has a professional stress destructive psychological and economic. We can distinguish decrease in efficiency of work, working capacity, deterioration in mental and somatic health of the personality, professional burning out from such consequences. Level of a professional stress in many respects is defined by the maintenance of work of the personality. Rather strong stressogenny factor is value judgment of sense of own activity from which the personal and behavioural deformations of the person which are shown in emergence of signs of a syndrome of professional burning out result. Emergence of these deformations is influenced by conditions and the organization of work, salary level, a possibility of career development, etc. All this demonstrates that it is necessary to develop programs of prevention and correction of a professional stress, and also the recommendation about his neutralization both on individually — personal, and on organizational levels.


References
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